Archives For Momentum Investing

Quiz!

Which of the following is the most promising investment?

  1. A company that is losing money and is priced low reflecting the losses.
  2. A profitable company that is underappreciated and priced low.
  3. A company with phenomenal profitability, that you shop from every day, and can’t live without.

Sales up 27%, Profits up 47%, Stock Down 7%! What Gives?

On 7/29/2021, Amazon reported spectacular Q2 sales growth of 27%. Profits grew even faster, at 47%. Yet, the stock declined 7% after the announcement. This is could be unsettling for investors that chose Amazon, given it’s amazing profitability.

What happened? These growth rates were below prior growth rates and the expectations. Stock prices move in response to changes in the company’s performance – a relative measure, as opposed to the absolute company performance. Once the bar is set very high, gains could be tough to achieve, and declines can be very rapid.

Did we get any warning signs? Yes, glaring ones. It’s P/E (stock price relative to earnings) was 69, and it’s P/B (stock price relative to company value or liquidation value) was 17. These numbers are huge, and reflect a company that is 100%’s better than other companies.

An extra difficulty: Stocks of successful companies sometimes go up far above their intrinsic value. It is partly the result of people choosing a company based on its success or even solely based on recent stock growth, while ignoring the stock price. You can do the same, and do well for some time, as people do in various pyramid schemes, or you can join at the peak and experience steep declines. The peak may come during a phenomenal quarter for the company.

How can you use this information? Whenever analyzing whether to buy a stock, look for companies that are underpriced relative to their performance. These include phenomenal companies that are underappreciated, as well as mediocre companies that are priced too low. If you find a company that you love and believe in, analyze how much of its value is already reflected in the stock price, before investing.

What is the future of Amazon’s stock? This question is outside the scope of this article. There are many positive and negative factors, and it’s not a trivial task to combine them to reach an answer. Here is a sliver of the factors: Will the company manage to revert back to its phenomenal growth of prior quarters, or even beat it? Will enough investors continue to bid up the price because they love the company, or because the stock price went up in recent years? Will competition eat into Amazon’s market share, or will Amazon gain even greater market share? Will interest rates in the US go up, hurting Amazon’s borrowing costs? The full list is very long.

Quiz Answer:

Which of the following is the most promising investment?

  1. A company that is losing money and is priced low reflecting the losses.
  2. A profitable company that is underappreciated and priced low. [Correct Answer]
  3. A company with phenomenal profitability, that you shop from every day, and can’t live without.

Explanations:

  1. If the company is priced appropriately, the next step is to check the odds of a turnaround towards profitability. Trusting a turnaround can be risky, and should be done with caution, based on strong evidence.
  2. The combination of profitability & underpricing is the ideal one. Underpriced profitable companies have the potential for extra returns compared to the average company.
  3. A phenomenally profitable company is a great start. If you can’t live without it, and others feel the same, it’s another positive sign. The missing part is whether the stock price reflects more or less of all these positives.

See article for more explanations.

Disclosures Including Backtested Performance Data

Quiz!

Which of the following are good ways to judge the future of portfolios of value stocks?

  1. Look at their 1 year performance. Strong performance is good news.
  2. Look at their 1 year performance. Strong performance is bad news.
  3. Look at their 10 year performance from all historic cases with valuations similar to today. Strong performance is good news.
  4. Look at their 10 year performance from all historic cases with valuations similar to today. Strong performance is bad news.
  5. Look at their 10 year performance. Strong performance is good news.
  6. Look at their 10 year performance. Strong performance is bad news.

Testing Emerging Markets Value Investments in a Simple Graph

Value stocks are priced low relative to their intrinsic value (low Price/Book, or P/B). Value investing makes logical sense: when buying cheap stocks, you can expect to enjoy higher returns. It is not only logical, but also supported by nearly 100 years of evidence. This is all nice, until you look at the past 10 years and see that value underperformed growth (high Price/Book) for the whole period. This raises the suspicion of a new normal. Maybe the entire group of companies with low prices has something wrong with them, and their value will go down over time, to justify the low price?

There is an easy test to differentiate between bad companies and cheap investments:

  1. Bad companies: The underperformance is explained by underperformance of their book values relative to the rest of the market. This is why Warren Buffett tracks the book values of his companies more than prices.
  2. Cheap investment: A lot of the underperformance of value stocks is explained by a change in their valuations (P/B) relative to the rest of the market.

As an example, here is a comparison of DFA funds, one representing overall Emerging Markets (EM), and the other representing EM Value. The graph divides the valuations (P/B) of EM by EM Value. A high value represents an increase in the price paid for all of EM relative to the price paid for EM Value stocks.

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For the year (2020), EM Value underperformed EM by about 11%, while the valuations difference increased by 15%. This means that the value companies, as measured by their book value, did 4% better than the overall market. This supports the thesis that these investments are simply cheaper, and you may reap the benefit as the valuations continue their cycle.

Quiz Answer:

Which of the following are good ways to judge the future of portfolios of value stocks?

  1. Look at their 1 year performance. Strong performance is good news.
  2. Look at their 1 year performance. Strong performance is bad news.
  3. Look at their 10 year performance from all historic cases with valuations similar to today. Strong performance is good news. [Correct Answer]
  4. Look at their 10 year performance from all historic cases with valuations similar to today. Strong performance is bad news.
  5. Look at their 10 year performance. Strong performance is good news.
  6. Look at their 10 year performance. Strong performance is bad news.

Explanations:

  1. You cannot conclude anything positive or negative from a 1 year period.
  2. See #1 above.
  3. The combination of averaging many 10-year stretches with a focus on pricing (valuations) similar to today, gives useful information.
  4. See #3 above.
  5. After a decade of unusually good returns, the risk of a weaker decade goes up, so it is not necessarily a good sign.
  6. After a decade of unusually good returns, the risk of a weaker decade goes up, but it is also not a guarantee for a bad next decade.
Disclosures Including Backtested Performance Data